When we discuss about an action which occurred at an earlier point in time, and it’s not specified precisely when it happened (perhaps we don’t know, or it is not important to say when it happened), we use the present perfect. Here’s an example:
• A German racing car has recently broken the world speed record. • We have spoken about this matter before and we’re hoping it will get resolved soon.
Explanation in Hindi:
पहचान: इन वाक्यों के अंत में आ है /ई है /ऐ है /चुका है /चुकी है /चुके हैं आता है। जैसे: Sub ने ऐसा… किया है /कर लिया है /कर दिया है / Sub ऐसा कर चुका है राम जा चुका है। वे खेलने जा चुके हैं। सीता पढने जा चुकी है। राम ने खाना खा लिया है। सीता ने पेड़ों मैं पानी डाल दिया है।
Present Perfect Tense Rules
If Sub=Singular(एकवचन) Then: 1. Sub+has+Verb 3rd form 2. Sub+hasn’t+Verb 3rd form 3. How+has+Sub+Verb 3rd form 4. Why+hasn’t+Sub+Verb 3rd form
If Sub= I, You, or Plural(बहुवचन) Then: 1. Sub+have+Verb 3rd form 2. Sub+haven’t+Verb 3rd form 3. How+have+Sub+Verb 3rd form 4. Why+haven’t+Sub+Verb 3rd form
Whenever the present perfect tense is used, it shows us different types of associations regarding what has occurred in the past versus the present time. Here’s an example:
• You’ve prepared the water so you can give your kid a bath. • I can’t move forward with the meeting, because just a handful of my colleagues have shown up as of now.
Often times this tense is used in order to convey the fact that a certain chain of events was repeated several times. Here’s an example:
• They’ve been to Chile three times.
This tense is also used every time we want to communicate that an action took place in a specific period until the present time. Here’s an example:
• Technology has clearly made a number of major breakthroughs in the last 30 years, and • Scientists made lots of crucial discoveries in the 19th century. • He puts to good use things that other people have thrown away, and • I threw away most of my old books when I moved house.
The present perfect tense can be used if we want to speak about a state that existed earlier in time and still exists now. Here’s an example:
• I have known him most of my working life. (I am still working) and • I knew him when we were both working in Rome. • We have belonged to the tennis club since we moved here. (We still belong to it.) and • We belonged to the tennis club in the village we used to live in.
In news reports, you will often read or hear events introduced using this tense, and then the past simple is used to give the details.
In conclusion, here’s a list of situations when the present perfect is used.
1. A certain point in the past that is not clearly specified:
We’ve been to Greece four times. (We went to Greece at some unspecified period of time in the past).
If you need to use the simple past you would have to write:
We went to Greece four times in 2014. (clearly specified point in time in the past, the year 2014)
2. An event which happened at some point in the past, and has an outcome in the present, now:
I can’t locate my suitcase. Has anyone seen it? (The suitcase was lost in the past, does anyone know where it is now?)
3. When referring to general events (ever, never) happening at different moments in ones life.
Have they ever bought Spanish food before? (in their life) We’ve never actually listen to this genre of music before. (in our life)
4. Actions which happened a short while ago (just)
Do you want to drink a cup of coffee with me? No, thanks. I’ve just drunk green tee. (I recently drank green tee.)
5. Events which have happened up to now (yet)
Are Mary and Isabella in the house? No, they haven’t gotten here yet.
6. Events which developed sooner than they were expected (already)
They’ve already arrived from their holiday. (We expected them at a much later date.)
Present Perfect Tense Examples
I have bought the book.
We have given him money.
She has reached England.
India has won the match.
The children have done the work.
They have not watched the movie.
He has not sung a song.
Her sister has not become a doctor.
The painter has not painted the wall.
I have not reached there.
Have you explained him everything?
Has the lyricist written a song?
Have the laborers not done the work?
What have you seen there?
Why has the boss not given her salary?
Present Perfect Tense Exercises
Try to make the correct tense from the below examples. Below you will find their answers as well.
Questions: 1. I / go / to the library today 2. You / keep a pet for three years 3. You / come here before? 4. It / rain all day? 5. Who / we / forgot to invite? 6. We / not / hear that song already 7. He / not / forget his books 8. she / steal all the chocolate 9. I / explain it well? 10. who / he / meet recently?
Answers: 1. I’ve gone to the library today 2. You’ve kept a pet for three years 3. Have you come here before? 4. Has it rained all day? 5. Who have we forgotten to invite? 6. We haven’t heard that song already 7. He hasn’t forgotten his books 8. She’s stolen all the chocolate 9. Have I explained it well? 10. Who has he met recently?
Hopefully this guide will allow you to use the present perfect tense the correct way in all given situations, and have you speaking English like a pro.